Protein C, Protein S
(Protein C, Protein S)
- Protein C or S Free (Functional) or Total (Antigen)
Following injury, normal blood clots are formed to stop bleeding then broken down by the body during the healing process. Protein C and Protein S are necessary for the normal formation of clots, by preventing excessive clot formation. Both Protein C and Protein S levels depend upon adequate levels of vitamin K. A Protein C and Protein S deficiency leads to an increased formation of blood clots (thrombosis). Low blood levels are seen in people with vitamin K deficiency, liver disease, very poor nutrition, with the therapeutic use of the blood-thinner Coumadin (warfarin), or during normal pregnancy. Altered blood levels are seen in people with autoimmune diseases, DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation), or cancer. Levels of Protein C are normally lower in women than men, and will also normally decrease with age.
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