Anti-Extractable Nuclear Antigens
(Anti-ENAs)

Alternate Names

  • Antibodies to Extractable Nuclear Antigens
  • Anti-Jo-1 (Antihistidyl Transfer Synthase)
  • Anti-RNP (Antiribonucleoprotein)
  • Anti-SM (Anti-Smith)

Autoimmune diseases cause the body to attack itself, which leads to inflammation and results in damage to muscles, tissues, and organs. The body produces antibodies specific to each autoimmune disease; the antibody levels measured in your blood are then used by your doctor to diagnose the disease that is causing your symptoms. Anti-ENAs is a blood test that is mainly used to diagnose SLE (systemic lupus erythmatosis) or autoimmune diseases affecting connective tissue, and to rule out other autoimmune diseases.

There are three different anti-ENA tests: Antinuclear Smith (anti-SM) antibody levels are higher in people with SLE, Antinuclear Ribonucleoprotein (anti-RNP) antibody levels are higher in people with diseases affecting connective tissue, and Antihystidyl Transfer Synthase (anti-Jo-1) antibody levels are higher in people with autoimmune diseases affecting their lungs or muscles.

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